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Radiographic appearance of the cervical vertebrae in normal and abnormal development

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      Summary

      To maximise the benefit from radiographs for the patient, the dentist or dental specialist should be familiar with the whole of the image produced. For cephalograms, this usually includes the cervical spine. Minor variations in the anatomy of the cervical vertebrae include dehiscences, accessory ossicles and differences in the profiles of the superior articular processes of the first cervical vertebrae. More severe anomalies include failure in segmentation (block vertebrae), odontoid dysplasia and clefting.

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