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One-year prospective outcome analysis and complications following total replacement of the temporomandibular joint with the TMJ Concepts system

      Abstract

      Total replacement of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) is increasingly accepted as the gold standard for reconstruction of irreparably damaged or ankylosed joints. The TMJ Concepts system (TMJ Concepts, Ventura, USA) has the longest follow-up of the 2 systems used in the UK. A total of 74 patients had placement of TMJ Concepts prostheses. The primary diagnoses were degenerative disease, multiple previous operations, injury, rheumatoid arthritis, psoriatic arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, and ankylosis. Of these, 12 were revisions of previous replacements (3 after multiple operations). Over the year there was a significant mean (SD) reduction in pain score (10 cm visual analogue scale) from 72 (2.5) to 8 (1.7) (p < 0.0001), and mean (SD) improvements in mouth opening from 22.4 mm (9.4) to 33.7 mm (6.2) (p < 0.0001), and dietary consistency (10 cm analogue liquid 0 to solid 100) from 38 (23) to 93 (16) (p < 0.0001). No patient had worse symptoms postoperatively. Joints in 2 patients failed because of biofilm infections. Two patients required blood transfusion and one required ligation of the external carotid artery. Five had perioperative dislocation, which responded to elastic intermaxillary fixation for one week. A total of 31 patients had partial, and 2 had total weakness of the facial nerve. All resolved fully except weakness of the temporal branch in one patient, which required brow lift. Total TMJ replacement gives good early improvements in function and pain with few complications. Of the 74 patients, 71 were very pleased to have had the procedure. One was dissatisfied despite complete pain relief and improvement in mouth opening from 3 to 30 mm, and 2 were ambivalent (one had infection, revision, and permanent weakness of the temporal branch of the facial nerve).

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