Review| Volume 58, ISSUE 6, P632-642, July 2020

Systematic scoping review of mandibular bone tissue engineering


      Tissue engineering is a promising alternative that may facilitate bony regeneration in small defects in compromised host tissue as well as large mandibular defects. This scoping systematic review was therefore designed to assess in vivo research on its use in the reconstruction of mandibular defects in animal models. A total of 4524 articles were initially retrieved using the search algorithm. After screening of the titles and abstracts, 269 full texts were retrieved, and a total of 72 studies included. Just two of the included studies employed osteonecrosis as the model of mandibular injury. All the rest involved the creation of a critical defect. Calcium phosphates, especially tricalcium phosphate and hydroxyapatite, were the scaffolds most widely used. All the studies that used a scaffold reported increased formation of bone when compared with negative controls. When combined with scaffolds, mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) increased the formation of new bone and improved healing. Various growth factors have been studied for their potential use in the regeneration of the maxillofacial complex. Bone morphogenic proteins (BMP) were the most popular, and all subtypes promoted significant formation of bone compared with controls. Whilst the studies published to date suggest a promising future, our review has shown that several shortfalls must be addressed before the findings can be translated into clinical practice. A greater understanding of the underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms is required to identify the optimal combination of components that are needed for predictable and feasible reconstruction or regeneration of mandibular bone. In particular, a greater understanding of the biological aspects of the regenerative triad is needed before we can to work towards widespread translation into clinical practice.


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