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Comparison of surgical outcomes related to interpositional arthroplasty materials used in patients with temporomandibular joint ankylosis: a systematic review and meta-analysis

  • Harsh Desai
    Correspondence
    Corresponding author.
    Affiliations
    Assistant Professor, Department of Dentistry, MAEER MIT Pune's MIMER Medical College and Dr. BSTR Hospital, Yashwant Nagar Approach Rd, Yashwant Nagar, Talegaon Dabhade, Maharashtra 410507, India
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  • Nivedita Pande
    Affiliations
    Consultant Pediatric and Preventive Dentist, Department of Dentistry, KEM Hospital, 489, Mudaliar Rd, Rasta Peth, Pune - 411011, Maharashtra, India.
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  • Ashwin Jawdekar
    Affiliations
    Professor and Head, Department of Pediatric and Preventive Dentistry, Bharti Vidyapeeth Deemed to be University Dental College and Hospital, Bharati Vidyapeeth Marg, Sector 3, CBD Belapur, Navi Mumbai, Maharashtra 400614, India
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      Abstract

      Surgical management of temporomandibular joint (TMJ) ankylosis involves various techniques from which interpositional arthroplasty (IPA) involves using several materials. The objectives of this study were to assess and compare post arthroplasty maximum mouth opening (MMO), symptoms like pain and discomfort in jaw opening and movements, failures such as reankylosis, neurosensory disturbances, and the effect of confounding variables such as age, gender, physiotherapy, etc. The search (conducted in September, 2021) included studies published in English on otherwise healthy individuals (11 months to 88 years) having undergone arthroplasty with a minimum of six months’ follow up. We used search engines such as Cochrane database, PubMed, Embase, Scopus, EBSCO host, Pro quest, J gate, Google Scholar, and manual search to include books and grey literature. Randomised clinical (RCT) and non-randomised clinical trials, observational studies, case series and reports meeting the inclusion criteria were selected. Two reviewers (HD and NP) independently extracted the data. Risk of bias was assessed using the Cochrane tool, Rangel checklist, and Joanna Briggs Institute. Data were analysed using RevMan (Version 5.4). Fifty studies with 1524 participants (442 bilateral and 891 unilateral joints) were included; six RCTs, 31 retrospective, 10 prospective, and three case series and reports. Amongst all interpositional materials, the highest increase in mouth opening was seen with dermis fat graft with a mean difference (Pooled MD) being 35.29mm (95% CI [32.36 to 38.22]). Comparison of temporalis myofascial with gap arthroplasty (GA) showed significant increase in MMO (Pooled MD in mm 1.30 95% CI [0.14 to 2.45]). Recurrence was significantly reduced when (IPA) was used, compared with GA (Risk difference 0.08mm 95% CI [−0.15 to −0.02]) and for Temporalis Myofascial Flap (TMF) when compared with GA (Risk difference −0.07mm 95% CI [−0.15 to 0]). Higher odds for developing neurosensory disturbances were seen with Al-Kayat Bramley incision (Pooled OR 0.11 95% CI [0.04 to 0.34]) compared to pre-auricular incision (Pooled OR 0.03 95% CI [0.01 to 0.09]). IPA was superior to GA with respect to maximum mouth opening (MMO) (Pooled MD in mm 1.21 95% CI [0.41 to 2.07]). Dermis fat graft offers the highest MMO. The overall quality of evidence for RCTs is poor while that of observational studies is moderate as per the relevant assessment of quality of evidence. More research with appropriate study designs is needed. Similar to the findings from the previous reviews, outcomes with IPA were superior when compared to GA in terms of mouth opening and less recurrence.

      Keywords

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