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Pattern of associated brain injury in maxillofacial trauma: A retrospective study from a high-volume centre

Published:September 26, 2022DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bjoms.2022.09.002

      Abstract

      The incidence of head injury in maxillofacial trauma patients varies widely in the literature. A good understanding of the patterns of association between these injuries would aid in efficient multidisciplinary treatment. The aim of this study therefore was to understand the associations between head injury and facial trauma by retrospectively analysing the records of patients seen at a tertiary care trauma centre. Demographic data were also described. Records of 4350 facial trauma patients over a five-year period were reviewed. A total of 3564 (81.9%) patients were victims of motor vehicle accidents (MVA). Male patients predominated, comprising 3711 (85.3%), and 36.6% were in the third decade of life. Facial fractures were seen in 2120 (48.7%), the most common being zygomatic fractures (60%). At the time of trauma, 2383 (57.3%) patients were under the influence of alcohol, and 2821 (87.8%) victims of two-wheeler MVAs were not using their helmet. Of all patients, 29.75% sustained a traumatic brain injury (TBI). Midface fractures were strongly associated with TBI. Maxillofacial injury may be considered a risk factor for TBI, and as such should immediately be suspected and investigated in all patients. Prompt recognition and management can improve outcomes in these patients.

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