Advertisement

The accuracy of preoperative clinical examination and imaging for mandibular resection in oral cancer: a systematic review of diagnostic test accuracy studies

  • James S Brown
    Correspondence
    Corresponding author at: 30 New Road, Lymm, WA13 9DY, UK
    Affiliations
    Liverpool Head and Neck Centre Liverpool University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust Lower Lane Liverpool L9 7AL, UK

    Department of Molecular and Clinical Cancer Medicine University of Liverpool Cancer Research Centre 200 London Road Liverpool L3 9TA, UK
    Search for articles by this author
  • Lauren P. Crowder
    Affiliations
    Liverpool Head and Neck Centre Liverpool University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust Lower Lane Liverpool L9 7AL, UK
    Search for articles by this author
  • Edward J. Willcocks
    Affiliations
    Liverpool Head and Neck Centre Liverpool University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust Lower Lane Liverpool L9 7AL, UK
    Search for articles by this author
  • Mandeep S Bajwa
    Affiliations
    Liverpool Head and Neck Centre Liverpool University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust Lower Lane Liverpool L9 7AL, UK

    Department of Molecular and Clinical Cancer Medicine University of Liverpool Cancer Research Centre 200 London Road Liverpool L3 9TA, UK
    Search for articles by this author
  • Andrew G Schache
    Affiliations
    Liverpool Head and Neck Centre Liverpool University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust Lower Lane Liverpool L9 7AL, UK

    Department of Molecular and Clinical Cancer Medicine University of Liverpool Cancer Research Centre 200 London Road Liverpool L3 9TA, UK
    Search for articles by this author
Published:October 25, 2022DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bjoms.2022.10.005

      Abstract

      The aim of this systematic review is not only to analyse the accuracy of clinical examination and radiological preoperative assessment of mandibular invasion reported in isolation, but to highlight those reports that have combined them rather than assessing accuracy in isolation.
      A total of 1576 titles and abstracts published between 1995 – 2000 were screened following a literature search in PubMed. Keywords were “mandible” and “squamous cell carcinoma”. 90 full manuscripts were reviewed with 24 meeting defined inclusion/exclusion criteria and yielding the data reported.
      The most sensitive test was Single Photon Emission Tomography with 8 out of the 10 studies reporting sensitivity higher than 95%. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) demonstrated superior sensitivity but was less specific than Computerised tomography (CT). A single report attempted to report the combined CT and MRI scans with a separate expert reporting but not resulting in more reliable detection. Periosteal stripping was not reported, and there was insufficient data to establish the value of new technologies.
      This review confirms that there is no reliable data on the results of combining imaging techniques with or without clinical examination. It emphasises the lack of data for the combination of preoperative techniques to enhance safe oncological resection of the mandible. Based on the evidence gathered in this review an algorithm of assessment of possible mandibular invasion is proposed. With new technologies available and 3-dimensional models to help plan the mandible resection and reconstruction, the potential of combining preoperative investigations should be fully realised through prospective research.

      Keywords

      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'

      Subscribe:

      Subscribe to British Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect

      References

        • Cao C.
        • Gan X.
        • He Y.
        • et al.
        Diagnostic accuracy of PET-CT, CT and MRI in preoperative assessment of mandibular invasion caused by head and neck cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
        Oral Oncol. 2021; 116105264
        • Gou L.
        • Wang W.
        • Qiao X.
        • Ye L.
        • Yan K.
        • Li L.
        • et al.
        Marginal or segmental mandibulectomy: treatment modality selection for oral cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
        Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2018; 47: 1-10
        • Brown J.S.
        • Griffith J.F.
        • Phelps P.D.
        • et al.
        A comparison of different imaging modalities and direct inspection after periosteal stripping in predicting the invasion of the mandible by oral squamous cell carcinoma.
        Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 1994; 32: 347-359
        • DeAngelis A.
        • Briek O.
        • Angel C.
        • Goh C.
        • Iseli T.
        • Nastri A.
        • et al.
        Can radiological examination of mandibular bone invasion accurately predict the need for mandibular resection in oral squamous cell carcinoma?.
        Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2019; 48: 576-583
        • McInnes M.D.F.
        • Moher D.
        • Thombs B.D.
        • et al.
        Preferred Reporting Items for a Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Diagnostic Test Accuracy Studies: The PRISMA-DTA Statement.
        JAMA. 2018; 319: 388-396
      1. Reitsma JB, Rutjes AWS, Whiting P, Vlassov VV, Leeflang MMG, Deeks JJ,. Chapter 9: Assessing methodological quality. In: Deeks JJ, Bossuyt PM, Gatsonis C (editors), Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Review of Diagnostic Test Accuracy version 1.0.0 The Cochrane collaboration 2009. Available from: http://srdta.cochrane.org/.

        • Zupi A.
        • Califano L.
        • Maremonti P.
        • Longo F.
        • Ciccarelli R.
        • Soricelli A.
        Accuracy in the diagnosis of mandibular involvement by oral cancer.
        J Craniomaxillofac Surg. 1996; 24: 281-284
        • Kalavrezos N.D.
        • Gratz K.W.
        • Sailer H.F.
        • Stahel W.A.
        Correlation of imaging and clinical features I the assessment of mandibular invasion of oral carcinomas.
        Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 1996; 22: 439-445
        • Ord R.A.
        • Sarmadi M.
        • Papadimitrou J.
        A comparison of segmental and marginal resection for oral squamous cell carcinoma involving the mandible.
        J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 1997; 55: 470-477
        • van den Brekel M.W.M.
        • Runne R.W.
        • Smeele L.E.
        • Tiwari R.M.
        • Snow G.B.
        • Castelijns J.A.
        Assessment of tumour invasion of the mandible: the value of different imaging techniques.
        Eur Radiol. 1998; 8: 1552-1557
        • Acton C.H.C.
        • Layt C.
        • Gwynne R.
        • Cooke R.
        • Seaton D.
        Investigative modalities of mandibular invasion by squamous cell carcinoma.
        Laryngoscope. 2000; 110: 2050-2055
        • Brockenbrough J.M.
        • Petruzelli G.J.
        • Lomasney L.
        DentaScan as an accurate method of predicting mandibular invasion in patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity.
        Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2003; 129: 113-117
        • Tei K.
        • Totsuka Y.
        • Iizuka T.
        • Ohmori K.
        Marginal resection for carcinoma of the mandibular alveolus and gingiva where radiologically detected bone defects do not extend beyond the mandibular canal.
        J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2004; 62: 834-839
        • Brown J.
        • Chatterjee D.
        • Lowe D.
        • Lewis-Jones H.
        • Rogers S.
        • Vaughan E.
        A new guide to mandibular resection for oral squamous cell carcinoma based on the Cawood and Howell classification of the mandible.
        Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2005; 34: 834-839
        • Van Cann E.M.
        • Oyen W.J.G.
        • Koole R.
        • Stoelinga P.J.W.
        Bone SPECT reduces the number of unnecessary mandibular resections in patients with squamous cell carcinoma.
        Oral Oncol. 2006; 42: 409-414
        • Van Cann E.M.
        • Koole R.
        • Oyen W.J.G.
        • de Rooy J.W.J.
        • de Wilde P.C.
        • Slootweg P.J.
        • et al.
        Assessment of mandibular invasion of squamous cell carcinoma by various modes of imaging: constructing a diagnostic algorithm.
        Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2008; 37: 535-541
        • Rajesh A.
        • Khan A.
        • Kendall C.
        • Hayter J.
        • Cherryman G.
        Can magnetic resonance imaging replace single photon computed tomography and computed tomography in detecting bone invasion in patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma?.
        Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2008; 46: 11-14
        • Imaizumi A.
        • Yoshino N.
        • Yamada I.
        • Nagumo K.
        • Amagasa T.
        • Omura K.
        • et al.
        Mandibular invasion of squamous cell carcinoma in the oral cavity.
        Am J Neuroradiol. 2006; 27: 114-122
        • Momin M.A.
        • Okochi K.
        • Watanabe H.
        • Imaizumi A.
        • Omura K.
        • Amagasa T.
        • et al.
        Diagnostic accuracy of cone beam CT in the assessment of mandibular invasion of lower gingival carcinoma: comparison with conventional panaromic radiography.
        Eur J Radiol. 2009; 72: 75-81
        • Vidiri A.
        • Guerrisi A.
        • Pellini R.
        • Manciocco V.
        • Covello R.
        • Mattioni O.
        • et al.
        Multi-detector row tomography (MDCT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) on the evaluation of the mandibular invasion by squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) of the oral cavity. Correlation with pathological data.
        J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 2010; 29: 73
        • Kushraj K.
        • Chatra L.
        • Shenai P.
        • Rao P.K.
        Bone invasion in oral cancer patients: a comparison between Orthopantomograph, conventional computed tomography and single photon emission computed tomography.
        J Cancer Res Ther. 2011; 7: 436-1421
        • Abd El-Hafez Y.G.
        • Chen C.-C.
        • Ng S.-H.
        • Lin C.-H.
        • Wang H.-M.
        • Chan S.-C.
        • et al.
        Comparison of PET/CT and MRI for the detection of bone marrow invasion for patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity.
        Oral Oncol. 2011; 47: 288-295
        • Handschel J.
        • Naujoks C.
        • Depprich R.A.
        • Kubler N.R.
        • Kropil P.
        • Kuhlemann J.
        • et al.
        CT-scan is a valuable toll to detect mandibular involvement in oral cancer patients.
        Oral Oncol. 2012; 48: 361-366
        • Arya S.
        • Rane P.
        • Sable N.
        • Juvekar S.
        • Bal M.
        • Chaukar D.
        Retromolar trigone squamous cell cancers: a reappraisal of 16 section MDCT for assessing mandibular invasion.
        J clin Radiol. 2013; 68: e680-e688
        • Hakim S.G.
        • Wicker H.
        • Trenkle t, Sieg P, Kennitzer J, Holl-Ulrich K,
        • et al.
        Imaging of mandibular invasion by oral squamous cell carcinoma using computed tomography, cone-beam computed tomography and bone scintigraphy with SPECT.
        ClinOral Invest. 2014; 18: 961-967
        • Silva M.
        • Zambrini E.I.
        • Chiari G.
        • Montermini H.
        • Manna C.
        • Poll T.
        • et al.
        Pre-surgical assessment of mandibular bone invasion from oral cancer: comparison between different imaging techniques and relevance of radiological expertise.
        Radiol Med. 2016; 121: 704-710
        • Chaukar D.A.
        • Dandekar M.
        • Kane S.
        • Arya S.
        • Purandare N.
        • Rangarajan V.
        • et al.
        Invasion of the mandible in gingivobuccal complex cancers: histopathological analysis of routes of tumour entry and correlation with preoperative assessment.
        Oral Oncol. 2018; 86: 181-187
        • Suzuki N.
        • Kuribayashi A.
        • Sakamoto K.
        • Sakamoto J.
        • Nakamura S.
        • Watanabe H.
        • et al.
        Diagnostic abilities of 3T MRI for assessing mandibular invasion of squamous cell carcinoma in the oral cavity: comparison with 64-row multidetector CT.
        Dentomaxillofac Radiol. 2019; 48: 20180311
        • Buller J.
        • Borggrefe J.
        • Zirk M.
        • Benzer E.
        • Zoller J.E.
        • Dreiseidler T.
        Does SPECT provide incremental value to CT or MRI in assessing mandibular invasion by oral squamous cell carcinoma.
        J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2020; 78: 835-843
        • Uribe S.
        • Rojas L.A.
        • Rosas C.F.
        Accuracy of imaging methods for detection of bone tissue invasion in patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma.
        Dentomaxillofac Radiol. 2013; 42: 20120346
        • Brown J.S.
        • Lewis-Jones H.
        Evidence for imaging the mandible in the management of oral squamous cell carcinoma: a review.
        Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2001; 39: 411-441